Chasing the effects of pre-analytical confounders - a multicenter study on CSF-AD biomarkers

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Author list: Leitao MJ, Baldeiras I, Herukka SK, Pikkarainen M, Leinonen V, Simonsen AH, Perret-Liaudet A, Fourier A, Quadrio I, Veiga PM, de Oliveira CR
Publication year: 2015
Volume number: 6
Number of pages: 8
ISSN: 1664-2295
Languages: English-Great Britain (EN-GB)


Abstract

Introduction: Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers - A beta 42, Tau, and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) - have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Preanalytical sample handling and storage play an important role in the reliable measurement of these biomarkers across laboratories.Aim: In this study, we aim to surpass the efforts from previous studies, by employing a multicenter approach to assess the impact of less studied CSF pre-analytical confounders in AD-biomarkers quantification.Methods: Four different centers participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analyzed for three biomarkers (A beta 42, Tau, and pTau) and tested for different spinning conditions [temperature: room temperature (RT) vs. 4 degrees C; speed: 500 vs. 2000 vs. 3000g], storage volume variations (25, 50, and 75% of tube total volume), as well as freezing-thaw cycles (up to five cycles). The influence of sample routine parameters, inter-center variability, and relative value of each biomarker (reported as normal/abnormal) was analyzed.Results: Centrifugation conditions did not influence biomarkers levels, except for samples with a high CSF total protein content, where either non-centrifugation or centrifugation at RT, compared to 4 degrees C, led to higher A beta 42 levels. Reducing CSF storage volume from 75 to 50% of total tube capacity decreased A beta 42 concentration (within analytical CV of the assay), whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to five freeze thaw cycles, whereas A beta 42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than three times.Conclusion: This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation at 4 degrees C prior to storage and highlights the influence of storage conditions in A beta 42 levels. This study contributes to the establishment of harmonized standard operating procedures that will help reducing inter-lab variability of CSF-AD biomarkers evaluation.


Keywords

Alzheimer's disease


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